Process of identifying a user's identity, making sure they have access to the system and/or files.  This can be accomplished by a password, retina scan, fingerprint scan, or a combination.


Cloud Advantage Technologies / CyberSecurity Division, the only comprehensive affordable 24 / 7  CyberSecurity solution for SMBs, Solopreneurs and at-home businesses.

C -  loud  

A - dvantage

T - echnologies

Cyber Attack

Any attempt to breach a logical environment's security boundary.  An attack may concentrate on intelligence gathering, disrupting company operations, exploiting weaknesses, keeping track of targets, stopping work, obtaining value, harming logical or physical assets, or leveraging system resources to enable assaults against other targets.

CyberSecurity Awareness Training

CyberSecurity Awareness Training is designed to help users and employees understand the role they play in helping to combat information security breaches.  Effective security awareness training also helps employees / users understand proper cyber hygiene, the security risks associated with their actions and to identify cyber-attacks they may encounter via email and/or the web.

ETP - Email Threat Prevention

Email threat prevention analyzes email attachments and URLs against known threats and uses contextual intelligence or data sanitization technologies to scan email, prioritize alerts, remove malicious elements and/or block threats.


A firewall is a network security device that monitors incoming and outgoing network traffic and decides whether to allow or block traffic based on a defined set of security rules.


Malware is short for "malicious software". Malware is designed to damage and destroy computers and computer systems crippling a business. Malware is particularly damaging for SMBs because it can cripple devices, which require expensive repairs or replacements. Malware can also provide a back door to access data, which potentially puts customers and employees at risk.

MDM - Mobile Device Management

Mobile device management (MDM) is a type of security software used to monitor, manage, and secure any mobile devices that are used in an organization, whether issued by the company or owned by the employee / user.

MDR - Managed Detection and Response

An MDR solution provides access to both the tools and security expertise that an SMB needs to protect itself against cyber threats.  An MDR provider will offer round-the-clock network monitoring and incident investigation and response.

MFA - Multi-factor Authentication

MFA, also referred to as two-factor authentication, makes it more difficult for hackers to access your account by requiring you to provide at least two different credentials.  MFA requires a second factor to confirm your identity in addition to your username and password, such as a one-time security code, a fingerprint scan, or a face recognition scan.


There are usually two types of Phishing emails.  One type of Phishing email carries a malicious attachment that, when downloaded, installs malware like ransomware.  Another type of Phishing email contains a link to a website that cybercriminals use to steal information like passwords, or trick users into downloading malware.


Ransomware is a form of malware that locks the user out of their files or their device, then demands a payment to restore access.  Ransomware attackers hit businesses, organizations, and individuals alike.


CyberSecurity Remediation refers to addressing a breach and limiting the amount of damage that breach can potentially cause to your business.

SIEM - Security Information and Event Management

SIEM is a security solution that helps businesses of all sizes recognize potential security threats and vulnerabilities before they have a chance to disrupt business operations.  SIEM, through the power of AI and machine learning is a highly efficient data orchestration system for managing ever-evolving threats as well as regulatory compliance and reporting.

SOC - Security Operations Center

The function of the Security Operations Center (SOC) is to monitor, prevent, detect, investigate, and respond to cyber threats around the clock.


Spoofing is when a hacker changes the IP address of an email so that it seems to come from a trusted source.


Spyware is a form of malware used by hackers to spy on you and your computer activities.  If a mobile device such as a smartphone is infected with spyware, a hacker can read your text messages, redirect your phone calls, and even track down where you are physically located!

Trojan Horse

A Trojan Horse is another form of malware. This one is a misleading computer program that looks innocent, but in fact allows the hacker into your system via a back door, allowing them to control your computer.


A virus is a malware that changes, corrupts,  or destroys information, and is then passed on to other systems, usually by otherwise benign means (e.g., email).  In some cases, a virus can cause physical damage.

VPN - Virtual Private Network 

VPN is a service that protects your internet connection and privacy online.  VPNs create an encrypted tunnel for your data, protecting your online identity by hiding your IP address.

Vulnerability Debt

Vulnerability debt refers to the accumulation of unaddressed security risks within a software system. It occurs when software vulnerabilities are not promptly resolved, leading to a backlog of security issues. Here are the key points about vulnerability debt:

Definition: Vulnerability debt specifically addresses the compromises made during development that affect the security posture of a system. These compromises result from immediate demands (such as time constraints) that lead to the postponement of necessary security measures1.
Impact: The backlog of unmanaged vulnerabilities can expose systems to significant risks, including security breaches, compliance violations, and operational disruptions1.
Mitigation Strategies:

Prioritization: Organizations should prioritize addressing critical vulnerabilities first.
Regular Patching: Regularly applying security patches helps reduce vulnerability debt.
Continuous Monitoring: CAT's 24 / 7 ongoing security monitoring ensures rapid detection and remediation of vulnerabilities.
In summary, managing vulnerability debt involves balancing rapid innovation with maintaining robust, secure software systems to prevent potential breaches and ensuring system integrity.

Vulnerability Gap

A vulnerability gap refers to the disparity between an organization’s existing security measures and the potential vulnerabilities that exist within its systems, processes, or infrastructure. In other words, it represents the space where security defenses fall short, leaving room for exploitation by malicious actors. Identifying and addressing these gaps is crucial for maintaining robust cybersecurity and safeguarding against threats.


A Worm is Malware that can reproduce itself for the purposes of spreading itself to other computers in the network.  Particularly nasty, worms can either be a means of slowing down a system by eating up resources, or by committing exploits such as installing back doors or actually stealing data.